Setup and Config
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Inspection and Comparison
- Command-line interface conventions
- Everyday Git
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git worktree add [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>] git worktree prune [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>] git worktree list [--porcelain]
Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.
A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check
out more than one branch at a time. With
git worktree add a new working
tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a
"linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by "git
init" or "git clone". A repository has one main working tree (if it’s not a
bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees.
When you are done with a linked working tree you can simply delete it.
The working tree’s administrative files in the repository (see
"DETAILS" below) will eventually be removed automatically (see
gc.worktreePruneExpire in git-config), or you can run
git worktree prune in the main or any linked working tree to
clean up any stale administrative files.
If you move a linked working tree, you need to manually update the administrative files so that they do not get pruned automatically. See section "DETAILS" for more information.
If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from being pruned by creating a file named locked alongside the other administrative files, optionally containing a plain text reason that pruning should be suppressed. See section "DETAILS" for more information.
- add <path> [<branch>]
<branch>into it. The new working directory is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc.
<branch>is omitted and neither
--detachedused, then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically, as if
-b $(basename <path>)was specified.
Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
List details of each worktree. The main worktree is listed first, followed by each of the linked worktrees. The output details include if the worktree is bare, the revision currently checked out, and the branch currently checked out (or detached HEAD if none).
addrefuses to create a new working tree when
<branch>is already checked out by another working tree. This option overrides that safeguard.
- -b <new-branch>
- -B <new-branch>
add, create a new branch named
<branch>, and check out
<new-branch>into the new working tree. If
<branch>is omitted, it defaults to HEAD. By default,
-brefuses to create a new branch if it already exists.
-Boverrides this safeguard, resetting
add, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD" in git-checkout.
--no-checkoutcan be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations, such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout" in git-read-tree.
prune, do not remove anything; just report what it would remove.
list, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts. This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user configuration. See below for details.
prune, report all removals.
- --expire <time>
prune, only expire unused working trees older than <time>.
Each linked working tree has a private sub-directory in the repository’s
$GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory’s name is usually
the base name of the linked working tree’s path, possibly appended with a
number to make it unique. For example, when
git worktree add /path/other/test-next next creates the linked
working tree in
/path/other/test-next and also creates a
$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next directory (or
test-next is already taken).
Within a linked working tree, $GIT_DIR is set to point to this private
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next in the example) and
$GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main working tree’s $GIT_DIR
/path/main/.git). These settings are made in a
.git file located at
the top directory of the linked working tree.
Path resolution via
git rev-parse --git-path uses either
$GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the
linked working tree
git rev-parse --git-path HEAD returns
rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master uses
$GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns
since refs are shared across all working trees.
See gitrepository-layout for more information. The rule of
thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to
$GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something
inside $GIT_DIR. Use
git rev-parse --git-path to get the final path.
If you move a linked working tree, you need to update the gitdir file
in the entry’s directory. For example, if a linked working tree is moved
/newpath/test-next and its
.git file points to
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next, then update
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir to reference
To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which
can be useful in some situations, such as when the
entry’s working tree is stored on a portable device), add a file named
locked to the entry’s directory. The file contains the reason in
plain text. For example, if a linked working tree’s
.git file points
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next then a file named
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked will prevent the
test-next entry from being pruned. See
gitrepository-layout for details.
The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the details on a single line with columns. For example:
S git worktree list /path/to/bare-source (bare) /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master] /path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
The porcelain format has a line per attribute. Attributes are listed with a label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like bare and detached) are listed as a label only, and are only present if and only if the value is true. An empty line indicates the end of a worktree. For example:
S git worktree list --porcelain worktree /path/to/bare-source bare worktree /path/to/linked-worktree HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234 branch refs/heads/master worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a detached
You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use git-stash to store your changes away temporarily, however, your working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don’t want to risk disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked working tree to make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier refactoring session.
$ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master $ pushd ../temp # ... hack hack hack ... $ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss' $ popd $ rm -rf ../temp $ git worktree prune
Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple checkouts of a superproject.
git-worktree could provide more automation for tasks currently performed manually, such as:
removeto remove a linked working tree and its administrative files (and warn if the working tree is dirty)
mvto move or rename a working tree and update its administrative files
lockto prevent automatic pruning of administrative files (for instance, for a working tree on a portable device)
Part of the git suite