1. Getting Started
- 1.1 About Version Control
- 1.2 A Short History of Git
- 1.3 What is Git?
- 1.4 The Command Line
- 1.5 Installing Git
- 1.6 First-Time Git Setup
- 1.7 Getting Help
- 1.8 Summary
2. Git Basics
- 2.1 Getting a Git Repository
- 2.2 Recording Changes to the Repository
- 2.3 Viewing the Commit History
- 2.4 Undoing Things
- 2.5 Working with Remotes
- 2.6 Tagging
- 2.7 Git Aliases
- 2.8 Summary
3. Git Branching
- 3.1 Branches in a Nutshell
- 3.2 Basic Branching and Merging
- 3.3 Branch Management
- 3.4 Branching Workflows
- 3.5 Remote Branches
- 3.6 Rebasing
- 3.7 Summary
4. Git on the Server
- 4.1 The Protocols
- 4.2 Getting Git on a Server
- 4.3 Generating Your SSH Public Key
- 4.4 Setting Up the Server
- 4.5 Git Daemon
- 4.6 Smart HTTP
- 4.7 GitWeb
- 4.8 GitLab
- 4.9 Third Party Hosted Options
- 4.10 Summary
5. Distributed Git
- 5.1 Distributed Workflows
- 5.2 Contributing to a Project
- 5.3 Maintaining a Project
- 5.4 Summary
7. Git Tools
- 7.1 Revision Selection
- 7.2 Interactive Staging
- 7.3 Stashing and Cleaning
- 7.4 Signing Your Work
- 7.5 Searching
- 7.6 Rewriting History
- 7.7 Reset Demystified
- 7.8 Advanced Merging
- 7.9 Rerere
- 7.10 Debugging with Git
- 7.11 Submodules
- 7.12 Bundling
- 7.13 Replace
- 7.14 Credential Storage
- 7.15 Summary
8. Customizing Git
- 8.1 Git Configuration
- 8.2 Git Attributes
- 8.3 Git Hooks
- 8.4 An Example Git-Enforced Policy
- 8.5 Summary
9. Git and Other Systems
- 9.1 Git as a Client
- 9.2 Migrating to Git
- 9.3 Summary
10. Git Internals
- 10.1 Plumbing and Porcelain
- 10.2 Git Objects
- 10.3 Git References
- 10.4 Packfiles
- 10.5 The Refspec
- 10.6 Transfer Protocols
- 10.7 Maintenance and Data Recovery
- 10.8 Environment Variables
- 10.9 Summary
A1. Appendix A: Git in Other Environments
- A1.1 Graphical Interfaces
- A1.2 Git in Visual Studio
- A1.3 Git in Visual Studio Code
- A1.4 Git in IntelliJ / PyCharm / WebStorm / PhpStorm / RubyMine
- A1.5 Git in Sublime Text
- A1.6 Git in Bash
- A1.7 Git in Zsh
- A1.8 Git in PowerShell
- A1.9 Summary
A2. Appendix B: Embedding Git in your Applications
- A2.1 Command-line Git
- A2.2 Libgit2
- A2.3 JGit
- A2.4 go-git
- A2.5 Dulwich
A3. Appendix C: Git Commands
- A3.1 Setup and Config
- A3.2 Getting and Creating Projects
- A3.3 Basic Snapshotting
- A3.4 Branching and Merging
- A3.5 Sharing and Updating Projects
- A3.6 Inspection and Comparison
- A3.7 Debugging
- A3.8 Patching
- A3.9 Email
- A3.10 External Systems
- A3.11 Administration
- A3.12 Plumbing Commands
2.5 Git Basics - Working with Remotes
Working with Remotes
To be able to collaborate on any Git project, you need to know how to manage your remote repositories. Remote repositories are versions of your project that are hosted on the Internet or network somewhere. You can have several of them, each of which generally is either read-only or read/write for you. Collaborating with others involves managing these remote repositories and pushing and pulling data to and from them when you need to share work. Managing remote repositories includes knowing how to add remote repositories, remove remotes that are no longer valid, manage various remote branches and define them as being tracked or not, and more. In this section, we’ll cover some of these remote-management skills.
Remote repositories can be on your local machine.
It is entirely possible that you can be working with a “remote” repository that is, in fact, on the same host you are. The word “remote” does not necessarily imply that the repository is somewhere else on the network or Internet, only that it is elsewhere. Working with such a remote repository would still involve all the standard pushing, pulling and fetching operations as with any other remote.
Showing Your Remotes
To see which remote servers you have configured, you can run the
git remote command.
It lists the shortnames of each remote handle you’ve specified.
If you’ve cloned your repository, you should at least see
origin — that is the default name Git gives to the server you cloned from:
$ git clone https://github.com/schacon/ticgit Cloning into 'ticgit'... remote: Reusing existing pack: 1857, done. remote: Total 1857 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0) Receiving objects: 100% (1857/1857), 374.35 KiB | 268.00 KiB/s, done. Resolving deltas: 100% (772/772), done. Checking connectivity... done. $ cd ticgit $ git remote origin
You can also specify
-v, which shows you the URLs that Git has stored for the shortname to be used when reading and writing to that remote:
$ git remote -v origin https://github.com/schacon/ticgit (fetch) origin https://github.com/schacon/ticgit (push)
If you have more than one remote, the command lists them all. For example, a repository with multiple remotes for working with several collaborators might look something like this.
$ cd grit $ git remote -v bakkdoor https://github.com/bakkdoor/grit (fetch) bakkdoor https://github.com/bakkdoor/grit (push) cho45 https://github.com/cho45/grit (fetch) cho45 https://github.com/cho45/grit (push) defunkt https://github.com/defunkt/grit (fetch) defunkt https://github.com/defunkt/grit (push) koke git://github.com/koke/grit.git (fetch) koke git://github.com/koke/grit.git (push) origin firstname.lastname@example.org:mojombo/grit.git (fetch) origin email@example.com:mojombo/grit.git (push)
This means we can pull contributions from any of these users pretty easily. We may additionally have permission to push to one or more of these, though we can’t tell that here.
Notice that these remotes use a variety of protocols; we’ll cover more about this in Getting Git on a Server.
Adding Remote Repositories
We’ve mentioned and given some demonstrations of how the
git clone command implicitly adds the
origin remote for you.
Here’s how to add a new remote explicitly.
To add a new remote Git repository as a shortname you can reference easily, run
git remote add <shortname> <url>:
$ git remote origin $ git remote add pb https://github.com/paulboone/ticgit $ git remote -v origin https://github.com/schacon/ticgit (fetch) origin https://github.com/schacon/ticgit (push) pb https://github.com/paulboone/ticgit (fetch) pb https://github.com/paulboone/ticgit (push)
Now you can use the string
pb on the command line in lieu of the whole URL.
For example, if you want to fetch all the information that Paul has but that you don’t yet have in your repository, you can run
git fetch pb:
$ git fetch pb remote: Counting objects: 43, done. remote: Compressing objects: 100% (36/36), done. remote: Total 43 (delta 10), reused 31 (delta 5) Unpacking objects: 100% (43/43), done. From https://github.com/paulboone/ticgit * [new branch] master -> pb/master * [new branch] ticgit -> pb/ticgit
master branch is now accessible locally as
pb/master — you can merge it into one of your branches, or you can check out a local branch at that point if you want to inspect it.
We’ll go over what branches are and how to use them in much more detail in Git Branching.
Fetching and Pulling from Your Remotes
As you just saw, to get data from your remote projects, you can run:
$ git fetch <remote>
The command goes out to that remote project and pulls down all the data from that remote project that you don’t have yet. After you do this, you should have references to all the branches from that remote, which you can merge in or inspect at any time.
If you clone a repository, the command automatically adds that remote repository under the name “origin”.
git fetch origin fetches any new work that has been pushed to that server since you cloned (or last fetched from) it.
It’s important to note that the
git fetch command only downloads the data to your local repository — it doesn’t automatically merge it with any of your work or modify what you’re currently working on.
You have to merge it manually into your work when you’re ready.
If your current branch is set up to track a remote branch (see the next section and Git Branching for more information), you can use the
git pull command to automatically fetch and then merge that remote branch into your current branch.
This may be an easier or more comfortable workflow for you; and by default, the
git clone command automatically sets up your local
master branch to track the remote
master branch (or whatever the default branch is called) on the server you cloned from.
git pull generally fetches data from the server you originally cloned from and automatically tries to merge it into the code you’re currently working on.
From Git version 2.27 onward,
If you want the default behavior of Git (fast-forward if possible, else create a merge commit):
If you want to rebase when pulling:
Pushing to Your Remotes
When you have your project at a point that you want to share, you have to push it upstream.
The command for this is simple:
git push <remote> <branch>.
If you want to push your
master branch to your
origin server (again, cloning generally sets up both of those names for you automatically), then you can run this to push any commits you’ve done back up to the server:
$ git push origin master
This command works only if you cloned from a server to which you have write access and if nobody has pushed in the meantime. If you and someone else clone at the same time and they push upstream and then you push upstream, your push will rightly be rejected. You’ll have to fetch their work first and incorporate it into yours before you’ll be allowed to push. See Git Branching for more detailed information on how to push to remote servers.
Inspecting a Remote
If you want to see more information about a particular remote, you can use the
git remote show <remote> command.
If you run this command with a particular shortname, such as
origin, you get something like this:
$ git remote show origin * remote origin Fetch URL: https://github.com/schacon/ticgit Push URL: https://github.com/schacon/ticgit HEAD branch: master Remote branches: master tracked dev-branch tracked Local branch configured for 'git pull': master merges with remote master Local ref configured for 'git push': master pushes to master (up to date)
It lists the URL for the remote repository as well as the tracking branch information.
The command helpfully tells you that if you’re on the
master branch and you run
git pull, it will automatically merge the remote’s
master branch into the local one after it has been fetched.
It also lists all the remote references it has pulled down.
That is a simple example you’re likely to encounter.
When you’re using Git more heavily, however, you may see much more information from
git remote show:
$ git remote show origin * remote origin URL: https://github.com/my-org/complex-project Fetch URL: https://github.com/my-org/complex-project Push URL: https://github.com/my-org/complex-project HEAD branch: master Remote branches: master tracked dev-branch tracked markdown-strip tracked issue-43 new (next fetch will store in remotes/origin) issue-45 new (next fetch will store in remotes/origin) refs/remotes/origin/issue-11 stale (use 'git remote prune' to remove) Local branches configured for 'git pull': dev-branch merges with remote dev-branch master merges with remote master Local refs configured for 'git push': dev-branch pushes to dev-branch (up to date) markdown-strip pushes to markdown-strip (up to date) master pushes to master (up to date)
This command shows which branch is automatically pushed to when you run
git push while on certain branches.
It also shows you which remote branches on the server you don’t yet have, which remote branches you have that have been removed from the server, and multiple local branches that are able to merge automatically with their remote-tracking branch when you run
Renaming and Removing Remotes
You can run
git remote rename to change a remote’s shortname.
For instance, if you want to rename
paul, you can do so with
git remote rename:
$ git remote rename pb paul $ git remote origin paul
It’s worth mentioning that this changes all your remote-tracking branch names, too.
What used to be referenced at
pb/master is now at
If you want to remove a remote for some reason — you’ve moved the server or are no longer using a particular mirror, or perhaps a contributor isn’t contributing anymore — you can either use
git remote remove or
git remote rm:
$ git remote remove paul $ git remote origin
Once you delete the reference to a remote this way, all remote-tracking branches and configuration settings associated with that remote are also deleted.