Git
Chapters ▾ 2nd Edition

2.5 Fundamentos de Git - Trabalhando de Forma Remota

Trabalhando de Forma Remota

Para colaborar com qualquer projeto Git, você precisará saber como gerenciar seus repositórios remotos. Repositórios remotos são versões de seu repositório hospedado na Internet ou em uma rede qualquer. Você pode ter vários deles, cada um dos quais geralmente é ou somente leitura ou leitura/escrita. Colaborar com outras pessoas envolve o gerenciamento destes repositórios remotos, fazer pushing(atualizar) e pulling(obter) de dados para e deles quando você precisar compartilhar seu trabalho. Gerenciar repositórios remotos inclui saber como adicioná-los remotamente, remover aqueles que não são mais válidos, gerenciar vários branches(ramos) e definí-los como rastreados ou não e muito mais. Nesta seção, abordaremos algumas destas habilidades de gereciamento remoto.

Exibindo seus repositórios remotos

Para ver quais servidores remotos você configurou, você pode executar o comando git remote. Ele lista os nomes abreviados de cada repositório remoto manejado que você especificou. Se você clonou seu repositório, você deve pelo menos ver origin(origem) – que é o nome padrão dado pelo Git ao servidor que você clonou:

$ git clone https://github.com/schacon/ticgit
Cloning into 'ticgit'...
remote: Reusing existing pack: 1857, done.
remote: Total 1857 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
Receiving objects: 100% (1857/1857), 374.35 KiB | 268.00 KiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (772/772), done.
Checking connectivity... done.
$ cd ticgit
$ git remote
origin

Você também pode especificar -v, que mostra as URLs que o Git tem armazenado pelo nome abreviado a ser usado para ler ou gravar naquele repositório remoto:

$ git remote -v
origin	https://github.com/schacon/ticgit (fetch)
origin	https://github.com/schacon/ticgit (push)

Se você tem mais de um repositório remoto, o comando lista todos eles. Por exemplo, um repositório com diversos repositórios remotos para trabalhar com vários colaboradores pode ser algo parecido com isto:

$ cd grit
$ git remote -v
bakkdoor  https://github.com/bakkdoor/grit (fetch)
bakkdoor  https://github.com/bakkdoor/grit (push)
cho45     https://github.com/cho45/grit (fetch)
cho45     https://github.com/cho45/grit (push)
defunkt   https://github.com/defunkt/grit (fetch)
defunkt   https://github.com/defunkt/grit (push)
koke      git://github.com/koke/grit.git (fetch)
koke      git://github.com/koke/grit.git (push)
origin    git@github.com:mojombo/grit.git (fetch)
origin    git@github.com:mojombo/grit.git (push)

Isto significa que nós podemos obter(pull) contribuições de qualquer um desses usuários muito facilmente. Nós podemos, adicionalmente, ter a permissão de atualizar(push) um ou mais destes, embora não possamos dizer isso nesse caso.

Note que estes repositórios remotos usam uma variedade de protocólos e nós falaremos mais sobre isso em Getting Git on a Server.

Adicionando Repositórios Remotos

Nós mencionamos e demos algumas demonstrações de como o comando clone implicitamente adiciona a origem(origin) remota para você. Aqui está como adicionar um novo repositório remoto explicitamente. Para adicionar um novo repositório Git remoto como um nome curto que você pode referenciar facilmente, execute git remote add <shortname> <url>:

$ git remote
origin
$ git remote add pb https://github.com/paulboone/ticgit
$ git remote -v
origin	https://github.com/schacon/ticgit (fetch)
origin	https://github.com/schacon/ticgit (push)
pb	https://github.com/paulboone/ticgit (fetch)
pb	https://github.com/paulboone/ticgit (push)

Agora você pode usar a string pb na linha de comando no lugar de uma URL completa. Por exemplo, se você quiser buscar toda a informação que Paul tem, mas você ainda não tem em seu repositório, você pode executar git fetch pb:

$ git fetch pb
remote: Counting objects: 43, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (36/36), done.
remote: Total 43 (delta 10), reused 31 (delta 5)
Unpacking objects: 100% (43/43), done.
From https://github.com/paulboone/ticgit
 * [new branch]      master     -> pb/master
 * [new branch]      ticgit     -> pb/ticgit

O master branch(ramo mestre) do Paul agora está acessível localmente como pb/master – você pode fundí-lo(merge) dentro de uma de suas ramificações(branches) ou você pode checar fora da ramificação local se você quiser inspecioná-lo. (Nós abordaremos o que são ramificações(branches) e como usá-las mais detalhadamente em Git Branching. )

Buscando e Obtendo de seus Repositórios Remotos

As you just saw, to get data from your remote projects, you can run:

$ git fetch [remote-name]

The command goes out to that remote project and pulls down all the data from that remote project that you don’t have yet. After you do this, you should have references to all the branches from that remote, which you can merge in or inspect at any time.

If you clone a repository, the command automatically adds that remote repository under the name “origin”. So, git fetch origin fetches any new work that has been pushed to that server since you cloned (or last fetched from) it. It’s important to note that the git fetch command only downloads the data to your local repository – it doesn’t automatically merge it with any of your work or modify what you’re currently working on. You have to merge it manually into your work when you’re ready.

If your current branch is set up to track a remote branch (see the next section and Git Branching for more information), you can use the git pull command to automatically fetch and then merge that remote branch into your current branch. This may be an easier or more comfortable workflow for you; and by default, the git clone command automatically sets up your local master branch to track the remote master branch (or whatever the default branch is called) on the server you cloned from. Running git pull generally fetches data from the server you originally cloned from and automatically tries to merge it into the code you’re currently working on.

Pushing to Your Remotes

When you have your project at a point that you want to share, you have to push it upstream. The command for this is simple: git push [remote-name] [branch-name]. If you want to push your master branch to your origin server (again, cloning generally sets up both of those names for you automatically), then you can run this to push any commits you’ve done back up to the server:

$ git push origin master

This command works only if you cloned from a server to which you have write access and if nobody has pushed in the meantime. If you and someone else clone at the same time and they push upstream and then you push upstream, your push will rightly be rejected. You’ll have to fetch their work first and incorporate it into yours before you’ll be allowed to push. See Git Branching for more detailed information on how to push to remote servers.

Inspecting a Remote

If you want to see more information about a particular remote, you can use the git remote show [remote-name] command. If you run this command with a particular shortname, such as origin, you get something like this:

$ git remote show origin
* remote origin
  Fetch URL: https://github.com/schacon/ticgit
  Push  URL: https://github.com/schacon/ticgit
  HEAD branch: master
  Remote branches:
    master                               tracked
    dev-branch                           tracked
  Local branch configured for 'git pull':
    master merges with remote master
  Local ref configured for 'git push':
    master pushes to master (up to date)

It lists the URL for the remote repository as well as the tracking branch information. The command helpfully tells you that if you’re on the master branch and you run git pull, it will automatically merge in the master branch on the remote after it fetches all the remote references. It also lists all the remote references it has pulled down.

That is a simple example you’re likely to encounter. When you’re using Git more heavily, however, you may see much more information from git remote show:

$ git remote show origin
* remote origin
  URL: https://github.com/my-org/complex-project
  Fetch URL: https://github.com/my-org/complex-project
  Push  URL: https://github.com/my-org/complex-project
  HEAD branch: master
  Remote branches:
    master                           tracked
    dev-branch                       tracked
    markdown-strip                   tracked
    issue-43                         new (next fetch will store in remotes/origin)
    issue-45                         new (next fetch will store in remotes/origin)
    refs/remotes/origin/issue-11     stale (use 'git remote prune' to remove)
  Local branches configured for 'git pull':
    dev-branch merges with remote dev-branch
    master     merges with remote master
  Local refs configured for 'git push':
    dev-branch                     pushes to dev-branch                     (up to date)
    markdown-strip                 pushes to markdown-strip                 (up to date)
    master                         pushes to master                         (up to date)

This command shows which branch is automatically pushed to when you run git push while on certain branches. It also shows you which remote branches on the server you don’t yet have, which remote branches you have that have been removed from the server, and multiple local branches that are able to merge automatically with their remote-tracking branch when you run git pull.

Removing and Renaming Remotes

You can run git remote rename to change a remote’s shortname. For instance, if you want to rename pb to paul, you can do so with git remote rename:

$ git remote rename pb paul
$ git remote
origin
paul

It’s worth mentioning that this changes all your remote-tracking branch names, too. What used to be referenced at pb/master is now at paul/master.

If you want to remove a remote for some reason – you’ve moved the server or are no longer using a particular mirror, or perhaps a contributor isn’t contributing anymore – you can either use git remote remove or git remote rm:

$ git remote remove paul
$ git remote
origin