1. Getting Started
- 1.1 About Version Control
- 1.2 A Short History of Git
- 1.3 What is Git?
- 1.4 The Command Line
- 1.5 Installing Git
- 1.6 First-Time Git Setup
- 1.7 Getting Help
- 1.8 Summary
2. Git Basics
- 2.1 Getting a Git Repository
- 2.2 Recording Changes to the Repository
- 2.3 Viewing the Commit History
- 2.4 Undoing Things
- 2.5 Working with Remotes
- 2.6 Tagging
- 2.7 Git Aliases
- 2.8 Summary
3. Git Branching
- 3.1 Branches in a Nutshell
- 3.2 Basic Branching and Merging
- 3.3 Branch Management
- 3.4 Branching Workflows
- 3.5 Remote Branches
- 3.6 Rebasing
- 3.7 Summary
4. Git on the Server
- 4.1 The Protocols
- 4.2 Getting Git on a Server
- 4.3 Generating Your SSH Public Key
- 4.4 Setting Up the Server
- 4.5 Git Daemon
- 4.6 Smart HTTP
- 4.7 GitWeb
- 4.8 GitLab
- 4.9 Third Party Hosted Options
- 4.10 Summary
5. Distributed Git
- 5.1 Distributed Workflows
- 5.2 Contributing to a Project
- 5.3 Maintaining a Project
- 5.4 Summary
7. Git Tools
- 7.1 Revision Selection
- 7.2 Interactive Staging
- 7.3 Stashing and Cleaning
- 7.4 Signing Your Work
- 7.5 Searching
- 7.6 Rewriting History
- 7.7 Reset Demystified
- 7.8 Advanced Merging
- 7.9 Rerere
- 7.10 Debugging with Git
- 7.11 Submodules
- 7.12 Bundling
- 7.13 Replace
- 7.14 Credential Storage
- 7.15 Summary
8. Customizing Git
- 8.1 Git Configuration
- 8.2 Git Attributes
- 8.3 Git Hooks
- 8.4 An Example Git-Enforced Policy
- 8.5 Summary
9. Git and Other Systems
- 9.1 Git as a Client
- 9.2 Migrating to Git
- 9.3 Summary
10. Git Internals
- 10.1 Plumbing and Porcelain
- 10.2 Git Objects
- 10.3 Git References
- 10.4 Packfiles
- 10.5 The Refspec
- 10.6 Transfer Protocols
- 10.7 Maintenance and Data Recovery
- 10.8 Environment Variables
- 10.9 Summary
A1. Appendix A: Git in Other Environments
- A1.1 Graphical Interfaces
- A1.2 Git in Visual Studio
- A1.3 Git in Visual Studio Code
- A1.4 Git in IntelliJ / PyCharm / WebStorm / PhpStorm / RubyMine
- A1.5 Git in Sublime Text
- A1.6 Git in Bash
- A1.7 Git in Zsh
- A1.8 Git in PowerShell
- A1.9 Summary
A2. Appendix B: Embedding Git in your Applications
- A2.1 Command-line Git
- A2.2 Libgit2
- A2.3 JGit
- A2.4 go-git
- A2.5 Dulwich
A3. Appendix C: Git Commands
- A3.1 Setup and Config
- A3.2 Getting and Creating Projects
- A3.3 Basic Snapshotting
- A3.4 Branching and Merging
- A3.5 Sharing and Updating Projects
- A3.6 Inspection and Comparison
- A3.7 Debugging
- A3.8 Patching
- A3.9 Email
- A3.10 External Systems
- A3.11 Administration
- A3.12 Plumbing Commands
7.7 Git Tools - Reset Demystified
Before moving on to more specialized tools, let’s talk about the Git
These commands are two of the most confusing parts of Git when you first encounter them.
They do so many things that it seems hopeless to actually understand them and employ them properly.
For this, we recommend a simple metaphor.
The Three Trees
An easier way to think about
checkout is through the mental frame of Git being a content manager of three different trees.
By “tree” here, we really mean “collection of files”, not specifically the data structure.
There are a few cases where the index doesn’t exactly act like a tree, but for our purposes it is easier to think about it this way for now.
Git as a system manages and manipulates three trees in its normal operation:
Last commit snapshot, next parent
Proposed next commit snapshot
HEAD is the pointer to the current branch reference, which is in turn a pointer to the last commit made on that branch. That means HEAD will be the parent of the next commit that is created. It’s generally simplest to think of HEAD as the snapshot of your last commit on that branch.
In fact, it’s pretty easy to see what that snapshot looks like. Here is an example of getting the actual directory listing and SHA-1 checksums for each file in the HEAD snapshot:
$ git cat-file -p HEAD tree cfda3bf379e4f8dba8717dee55aab78aef7f4daf author Scott Chacon 1301511835 -0700 committer Scott Chacon 1301511835 -0700 initial commit $ git ls-tree -r HEAD 100644 blob a906cb2a4a904a152... README 100644 blob 8f94139338f9404f2... Rakefile 040000 tree 99f1a6d12cb4b6f19... lib
ls-tree commands are “plumbing” commands that are used for lower level things and not really used in day-to-day work, but they help us see what’s going on here.
The index is your proposed next commit.
We’ve also been referring to this concept as Git’s “Staging Area” as this is what Git looks at when you run
Git populates this index with a list of all the file contents that were last checked out into your working directory and what they looked like when they were originally checked out.
You then replace some of those files with new versions of them, and
git commit converts that into the tree for a new commit.
$ git ls-files -s 100644 a906cb2a4a904a152e80877d4088654daad0c859 0 README 100644 8f94139338f9404f26296befa88755fc2598c289 0 Rakefile 100644 47c6340d6459e05787f644c2447d2595f5d3a54b 0 lib/simplegit.rb
Again, here we’re using
git ls-files, which is more of a behind the scenes command that shows you what your index currently looks like.
The index is not technically a tree structure — it’s actually implemented as a flattened manifest — but for our purposes it’s close enough.
The Working Directory
Finally, you have your working directory (also commonly referred to as the “working tree”).
The other two trees store their content in an efficient but inconvenient manner, inside the
The working directory unpacks them into actual files, which makes it much easier for you to edit them.
Think of the working directory as a sandbox, where you can try changes out before committing them to your staging area (index) and then to history.
$ tree . ├── README ├── Rakefile └── lib └── simplegit.rb 1 directory, 3 files
Git’s typical workflow is to record snapshots of your project in successively better states, by manipulating these three trees.
Let’s visualize this process: say you go into a new directory with a single file in it.
We’ll call this v1 of the file, and we’ll indicate it in blue.
Now we run
git init, which will create a Git repository with a HEAD reference which points to the unborn
At this point, only the working directory tree has any content.
Now we want to commit this file, so we use
git add to take content in the working directory and copy it to the index.
Then we run
git commit, which takes the contents of the index and saves it as a permanent snapshot, creates a commit object which points to that snapshot, and updates
master to point to that commit.
If we run
git status, we’ll see no changes, because all three trees are the same.
Now we want to make a change to that file and commit it. We’ll go through the same process; first, we change the file in our working directory. Let’s call this v2 of the file, and indicate it in red.
If we run
git status right now, we’ll see the file in red as “Changes not staged for commit”, because that entry differs between the index and the working directory.
Next we run
git add on it to stage it into our index.
At this point, if we run
git status, we will see the file in green under “Changes to be committed” because the index and HEAD differ — that is, our proposed next commit is now different from our last commit.
Finally, we run
git commit to finalize the commit.
git status will give us no output, because all three trees are the same again.
Switching branches or cloning goes through a similar process. When you checkout a branch, it changes HEAD to point to the new branch ref, populates your index with the snapshot of that commit, then copies the contents of the index into your working directory.
The Role of Reset
reset command makes more sense when viewed in this context.
For the purposes of these examples, let’s say that we’ve modified
file.txt again and committed it a third time.
So now our history looks like this:
Let’s now walk through exactly what
reset does when you call it.
It directly manipulates these three trees in a simple and predictable way.
It does up to three basic operations.
Step 1: Move HEAD
The first thing
reset will do is move what HEAD points to.
This isn’t the same as changing HEAD itself (which is what
reset moves the branch that HEAD is pointing to.
This means if HEAD is set to the
master branch (i.e. you’re currently on the
master branch), running
git reset 9e5e6a4 will start by making
master point to
No matter what form of
reset with a commit you invoke, this is the first thing it will always try to do.
reset --soft, it will simply stop there.
Now take a second to look at that diagram and realize what happened: it essentially undid the last
git commit command.
When you run
git commit, Git creates a new commit and moves the branch that HEAD points to up to it.
reset back to
HEAD~ (the parent of HEAD), you are moving the branch back to where it was, without changing the index or working directory.
You could now update the index and run
git commit again to accomplish what
git commit --amend would have done (see Changing the Last Commit).
Step 2: Updating the Index (--mixed)
Note that if you run
git status now you’ll see in green the difference between the index and what the new HEAD is.
The next thing
reset will do is to update the index with the contents of whatever snapshot HEAD now points to.
If you specify the
reset will stop at this point.
This is also the default, so if you specify no option at all (just
git reset HEAD~ in this case), this is where the command will stop.
Now take another second to look at that diagram and realize what happened: it still undid your last
commit, but also unstaged everything.
You rolled back to before you ran all your
git add and
git commit commands.
Step 3: Updating the Working Directory (--hard)
The third thing that
reset will do is to make the working directory look like the index.
If you use the
--hard option, it will continue to this stage.
So let’s think about what just happened.
You undid your last commit, the
git add and
git commit commands, and all the work you did in your working directory.
It’s important to note that this flag (
--hard) is the only way to make the
reset command dangerous, and one of the very few cases where Git will actually destroy data.
Any other invocation of
reset can be pretty easily undone, but the
--hard option cannot, since it forcibly overwrites files in the working directory.
In this particular case, we still have the v3 version of our file in a commit in our Git DB, and we could get it back by looking at our
reflog, but if we had not committed it, Git still would have overwritten the file and it would be unrecoverable.
reset command overwrites these three trees in a specific order, stopping when you tell it to:
Move the branch HEAD points to (stop here if
Make the index look like HEAD (stop here unless
Make the working directory look like the index.
Reset With a Path
That covers the behavior of
reset in its basic form, but you can also provide it with a path to act upon.
If you specify a path,
reset will skip step 1, and limit the remainder of its actions to a specific file or set of files.
This actually sort of makes sense — HEAD is just a pointer, and you can’t point to part of one commit and part of another.
But the index and working directory can be partially updated, so reset proceeds with steps 2 and 3.
So, assume we run
git reset file.txt.
This form (since you did not specify a commit SHA-1 or branch, and you didn’t specify
--hard) is shorthand for
git reset --mixed HEAD file.txt, which will:
Move the branch HEAD points to (skipped).
Make the index look like HEAD (stop here).
So it essentially just copies
file.txt from HEAD to the index.
This has the practical effect of unstaging the file.
If we look at the diagram for that command and think about what
git add does, they are exact opposites.
This is why the output of the
git status command suggests that you run this to unstage a file (see Unstaging a Staged File for more on this).
We could just as easily not let Git assume we meant “pull the data from HEAD” by specifying a specific commit to pull that file version from.
We would just run something like
git reset eb43bf file.txt.
This effectively does the same thing as if we had reverted the content of the file to v1 in the working directory, ran
git add on it, then reverted it back to v3 again (without actually going through all those steps).
If we run
git commit now, it will record a change that reverts that file back to v1, even though we never actually had it in our working directory again.
It’s also interesting to note that like
git add, the
reset command will accept a
--patch option to unstage content on a hunk-by-hunk basis.
So you can selectively unstage or revert content.
Let’s look at how to do something interesting with this newfound power — squashing commits.
Say you have a series of commits with messages like “oops.”, “WIP” and “forgot this file”.
You can use
reset to quickly and easily squash them into a single commit that makes you look really smart.
Squashing Commits shows another way to do this, but in this example it’s simpler to use
Let’s say you have a project where the first commit has one file, the second commit added a new file and changed the first, and the third commit changed the first file again. The second commit was a work in progress and you want to squash it down.
You can run
git reset --soft HEAD~2 to move the HEAD branch back to an older commit (the most recent commit you want to keep):
And then simply run
git commit again:
Now you can see that your reachable history, the history you would push, now looks like you had one commit with
file-a.txt v1, then a second that both modified
file-a.txt to v3 and added
The commit with the v2 version of the file is no longer in the history.
Check It Out
Finally, you may wonder what the difference between
checkout manipulates the three trees, and it is a bit different depending on whether you give the command a file path or not.
git checkout [branch] is pretty similar to running
git reset --hard [branch] in that it updates all three trees for you to look like
[branch], but there are two important differences.
checkout is working-directory safe; it will check to make sure it’s not blowing away files that have changes to them.
Actually, it’s a bit smarter than that — it tries to do a trivial merge in the working directory, so all of the files you haven’t changed will be updated.
reset --hard, on the other hand, will simply replace everything across the board without checking.
The second important difference is how
checkout updates HEAD.
reset will move the branch that HEAD points to,
checkout will move HEAD itself to point to another branch.
For instance, say we have
develop branches which point at different commits, and we’re currently on
develop (so HEAD points to it).
If we run
git reset master,
develop itself will now point to the same commit that
If we instead run
git checkout master,
develop does not move, HEAD itself does.
HEAD will now point to
So, in both cases we’re moving HEAD to point to commit A, but how we do so is very different.
reset will move the branch HEAD points to,
checkout moves HEAD itself.
The other way to run
checkout is with a file path, which, like
reset, does not move HEAD.
It is just like
git reset [branch] file in that it updates the index with that file at that commit, but it also overwrites the file in the working directory.
It would be exactly like
git reset --hard [branch] file (if
reset would let you run that) — it’s not working-directory safe, and it does not move HEAD.
git reset and
checkout will accept a
--patch option to allow you to selectively revert file contents on a hunk-by-hunk basis.
Hopefully now you understand and feel more comfortable with the
reset command, but are probably still a little confused about how exactly it differs from
checkout and could not possibly remember all the rules of the different invocations.
Here’s a cheat-sheet for which commands affect which trees. The “HEAD” column reads “REF” if that command moves the reference (branch) that HEAD points to, and “HEAD” if it moves HEAD itself. Pay especial attention to the 'WD Safe?' column — if it says NO, take a second to think before running that command.