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Inspection and Comparison
- Command-line interface conventions
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- 2.35.1 → 2.36.1 no changes
- 2.35.0 01/24/22
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- 2.30.1 02/08/21
- 2.30.0 12/27/20
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- 2.24.0 11/04/19
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- 2.18.0 06/21/18
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- 2.12.5 09/22/17
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- 2.9.5 07/30/17
git send-email [<options>] <file|directory|rev-list options>… git send-email --dump-aliases
Takes the patches given on the command line and emails them out. Patches can be specified as files, directories (which will send all files in the directory), or directly as a revision list. In the last case, any format accepted by git-format-patch can be passed to git send-email.
The header of the email is configurable via command-line options. If not specified on the command line, the user will be prompted with a ReadLine enabled interface to provide the necessary information.
There are two formats accepted for patch files:
mbox format files
This is what git-format-patch generates. Most headers and MIME formatting are ignored.
The original format used by Greg Kroah-Hartman’s send_lots_of_email.pl script
This format expects the first line of the file to contain the "Cc:" value and the "Subject:" of the message as the second line.
Review and edit each patch you’re about to send. Default is the value of
sendemail.annotate. See the CONFIGURATION section for
Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
This option may be specified multiple times.
Specify a starting "Cc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
This option may be specified multiple times.
Invoke a text editor (see GIT_EDITOR in git-var) to edit an introductory message for the patch series.
--composeis used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message (what you type after the headers and a blank line) only contains blank (or Git: prefixed) lines, the summary won’t be sent, but From, Subject, and In-Reply-To headers will be used unless they are removed.
Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted for.
See the CONFIGURATION section for
Specify the sender of the emails. If not specified on the command line, the value of the
sendemail.fromconfiguration option is used. If neither the command-line option nor
sendemail.fromare set, then the user will be prompted for the value. The default for the prompt will be the value of GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT, or GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT if that is not set, as returned by "git var -l".
Specify the address where replies from recipients should go to. Use this if replies to messages should go to another address than what is specified with the --from parameter.
Make the first mail (or all the mails with
--no-thread) appear as a reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to provide a new patch series. The second and subsequent emails will be sent as replies according to the
So for example when
--no-chain-reply-toare specified, the second and subsequent patches will be replies to the first one like in the illustration below where
[PATCH v2 0/3]is in reply to
[PATCH 0/2] Here is what I did... [PATCH 1/2] Clean up and tests [PATCH 2/2] Implementation [PATCH v2 0/3] Here is a reroll [PATCH v2 1/3] Clean up [PATCH v2 2/3] New tests [PATCH v2 3/3] Implementation
Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose is not set, this will be prompted for.
Specify the initial subject of the email thread. Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose is not set, this will be prompted for.
Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated. Generally, this will be the upstream maintainer of the project involved. Default is the value of the
sendemail.toconfiguration value; if that is unspecified, and --to-cmd is not specified, this will be prompted for.
This option may be specified multiple times.
When encountering a non-ASCII message or subject that does not declare its encoding, add headers/quoting to indicate it is encoded in <encoding>. Default is the value of the sendemail.assume8bitEncoding; if that is unspecified, this will be prompted for if any non-ASCII files are encountered.
Note that no attempts whatsoever are made to validate the encoding.
Specify encoding of compose message. Default is the value of the sendemail.composeencoding; if that is unspecified, UTF-8 is assumed.
Specify the transfer encoding to be used to send the message over SMTP. 7bit will fail upon encountering a non-ASCII message. quoted-printable can be useful when the repository contains files that contain carriage returns, but makes the raw patch email file (as saved from a MUA) much harder to inspect manually. base64 is even more fool proof, but also even more opaque. auto will use 8bit when possible, and quoted-printable otherwise.
Default is the value of the
sendemail.transferEncodingconfiguration value; if that is unspecified, default to
Add (or prevent adding) the "X-Mailer:" header. By default, the header is added, but it can be turned off by setting the
sendemail.xmailerconfiguration variable to
Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails. This is useful if your default address is not the address that is subscribed to a list. In order to use the From address, set the value to "auto". If you use the sendmail binary, you must have suitable privileges for the -f parameter. Default is the value of the
sendemail.envelopeSenderconfiguration variable; if that is unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to your MTA.
Specify the encryption to use, either ssl or tls. Any other value reverts to plain SMTP. Default is the value of
Specifies the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) used in the HELO/EHLO command to the SMTP server. Some servers require the FQDN to match your IP address. If not set, git send-email attempts to determine your FQDN automatically. Default is the value of
Whitespace-separated list of allowed SMTP-AUTH mechanisms. This setting forces using only the listed mechanisms. Example:
$ git send-email --smtp-auth="PLAIN LOGIN GSSAPI" ...
If at least one of the specified mechanisms matches the ones advertised by the SMTP server and if it is supported by the utilized SASL library, the mechanism is used for authentication. If neither sendemail.smtpAuth nor
--smtp-authis specified, all mechanisms supported by the SASL library can be used. The special value none maybe specified to completely disable authentication independently of
Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no argument is specified, then the empty string is used as the password. Default is the value of
--smtp-passalways overrides this value.
Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
sendemail.smtpUser), but no password has been specified (with
sendemail.smtpPass), then a password is obtained using git-credential.
Disable SMTP authentication. Short hand for
If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
smtp.example.comor a raw IP address). Alternatively it can specify a full pathname of a sendmail-like program instead; the program must support the
-ioption. Default value can be specified by the
sendemail.smtpServerconfiguration option; the built-in default is to search for
/usr/liband $PATH if such program is available, falling back to
Specifies a port different from the default port (SMTP servers typically listen to smtp port 25, but may also listen to submission port 587, or the common SSL smtp port 465); symbolic port names (e.g. "submission" instead of 587) are also accepted. The port can also be set with the
If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server option to use. Default value can be specified by the
The --smtp-server-option option must be repeated for each option you want to pass to the server. Likewise, different lines in the configuration files must be used for each option.
Legacy alias for --smtp-encryption ssl.
Path to a store of trusted CA certificates for SMTP SSL/TLS certificate validation (either a directory that has been processed by c_rehash, or a single file containing one or more PEM format certificates concatenated together: see verify(1) -CAfile and -CApath for more information on these). Set it to an empty string to disable certificate verification. Defaults to the value of the
sendemail.smtpsslcertpathconfiguration variable, if set, or the backing SSL library’s compiled-in default otherwise (which should be the best choice on most platforms).
Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of
sendemail.smtpUser; if a username is not specified (with
sendemail.smtpUser), then authentication is not attempted.
Enable (1) or disable (0) debug output. If enabled, SMTP commands and replies will be printed. Useful to debug TLS connection and authentication problems.
Some email servers (e.g. smtp.163.com) limit the number emails to be sent per session (connection) and this will lead to a failure when sending many messages. With this option, send-email will disconnect after sending $<num> messages and wait for a few seconds (see --relogin-delay) and reconnect, to work around such a limit. You may want to use some form of credential helper to avoid having to retype your password every time this happens. Defaults to the
Waiting $<int> seconds before reconnecting to SMTP server. Used together with --batch-size option. Defaults to the
Clears any list of "To:", "Cc:", "Bcc:" addresses previously set via config.
Clears the previously read value of
sendemail.identityset via config, if any.
Specify a command to execute once per patch file which should generate patch file specific "To:" entries. Output of this command must be single email address per line. Default is the value of sendemail.tocmd configuration value.
Specify a command to execute once per patch file which should generate patch file specific "Cc:" entries. Output of this command must be single email address per line. Default is the value of
If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the previous email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent. When using this, it is recommended that the first file given be an overview of the entire patch series. Disabled by default, but the
sendemail.chainReplyToconfiguration variable can be used to enable it.
A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the sendemail.<identity> subsection to take precedence over values in the sendemail section. The default identity is the value of
If this is set, add emails found in the
Signed-off-bytrailer or Cc: lines to the cc list. Default is the value of
sendemail.signedoffbyccconfiguration value; if that is unspecified, default to --signed-off-by-cc.
If this is set, emails found in Cc: headers in the first patch of the series (typically the cover letter) are added to the cc list for each email set. Default is the value of sendemail.cccover configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-cc-cover.
If this is set, emails found in To: headers in the first patch of the series (typically the cover letter) are added to the to list for each email set. Default is the value of sendemail.tocover configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-to-cover.
Specify an additional category of recipients to suppress the auto-cc of:
author will avoid including the patch author.
self will avoid including the sender.
cc will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the patch header except for self (use self for that).
bodycc will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the patch body (commit message) except for self (use self for that).
sob will avoid including anyone mentioned in the Signed-off-by trailers except for self (use self for that).
misc-by will avoid including anyone mentioned in Acked-by, Reviewed-by, Tested-by and other "-by" lines in the patch body, except Signed-off-by (use sob for that).
cccmd will avoid running the --cc-cmd.
body is equivalent to sob + bodycc + misc-by.
all will suppress all auto cc values.
Default is the value of
sendemail.suppressccconfiguration value; if that is unspecified, default to self if --suppress-from is specified, as well as body if --no-signed-off-cc is specified.
If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc: list. Default is the value of
sendemail.suppressFromconfiguration value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-suppress-from.
If this is set, the In-Reply-To and References headers will be added to each email sent. Whether each mail refers to the previous email (
deepthreading per git format-patch wording) or to the first email (
shallowthreading) is governed by "--[no-]chain-reply-to".
If disabled with "--no-thread", those headers will not be added (unless specified with --in-reply-to). Default is the value of the
sendemail.threadconfiguration value; if that is unspecified, default to --thread.
It is up to the user to ensure that no In-Reply-To header already exists when git send-email is asked to add it (especially note that git format-patch can be configured to do the threading itself). Failure to do so may not produce the expected result in the recipient’s MUA.
Confirm just before sending:
always will always confirm before sending
never will never confirm before sending
cc will confirm before sending when send-email has automatically added addresses from the patch to the Cc list
compose will confirm before sending the first message when using --compose.
auto is equivalent to cc + compose
Default is the value of
sendemail.confirmconfiguration value; if that is unspecified, default to auto unless any of the suppress options have been specified, in which case default to compose.
Do everything except actually send the emails.
When an argument may be understood either as a reference or as a file name, choose to understand it as a format-patch argument (
--format-patch) or as a file name (
--no-format-patch). By default, when such a conflict occurs, git send-email will fail.
Make git-send-email less verbose. One line per email should be all that is output.
Perform sanity checks on patches. Currently, validation means the following:
Default is the value of
sendemail.validate; if this is not set, default to
Send emails even if safety checks would prevent it.
To avoid typing long email addresses, point this to one or more email aliases files. You must also supply
Format of the file(s) specified in sendemail.aliasesFile. Must be one of mutt, mailrc, pine, elm, or gnus, or sendmail.
What an alias file in each format looks like can be found in the documentation of the email program of the same name. The differences and limitations from the standard formats are described below:
Quoted aliases and quoted addresses are not supported: lines that contain a
"symbol are ignored.
Redirection to a file (
/path/name) or pipe (
|command) is not supported.
File inclusion (
:include: /path/name) is not supported.
Warnings are printed on the standard error output for any explicitly unsupported constructs, and any other lines that are not recognized by the parser.
If true (default), a single editor instance will be spawned to edit files you have to edit (patches when
--annotateis used, and the summary when
--composeis used). If false, files will be edited one after the other, spawning a new editor each time.
Sets the default for whether to confirm before sending. Must be one of always, never, cc, compose, or auto. See
--confirmin the previous section for the meaning of these values.
To use git send-email to send your patches through the GMail SMTP server, edit ~/.gitconfig to specify your account settings:
[sendemail] smtpEncryption = tls smtpServer = smtp.gmail.com smtpUser = firstname.lastname@example.org smtpServerPort = 587
If you have multi-factor authentication set up on your Gmail account, you will need to generate an app-specific password for use with git send-email. Visit https://security.google.com/settings/security/apppasswords to create it.
If you do not have multi-factor authentication set up on your Gmail account, you will need to allow less secure app access. Visit https://myaccount.google.com/lesssecureapps to enable it.
Once your commits are ready to be sent to the mailing list, run the following commands:
$ git format-patch --cover-letter -M origin/master -o outgoing/ $ edit outgoing/0000-* $ git send-email outgoing/*
The first time you run it, you will be prompted for your credentials. Enter the app-specific or your regular password as appropriate. If you have credential helper configured (see git-credential), the password will be saved in the credential store so you won’t have to type it the next time.
Note: the following core Perl modules that may be installed with your distribution of Perl are required: MIME::Base64, MIME::QuotedPrint, Net::Domain and Net::SMTP. These additional Perl modules are also required: Authen::SASL and Mail::Address.
Part of the git suite