Setup and Config
Getting and Creating Projects
Branching and Merging
Sharing and Updating Projects
Inspection and Comparison
- 2.0.2 → 2.0.3 no changes
- 2.0.1 06/25/14
- 1.9.3 → 2.0.0 no changes
- 1.9.2 04/09/14
- 1.9.1 no changes
- 1.9.0 02/14/14
- 22.214.171.124 → 126.96.36.199 no changes
- 1.8.5 11/27/13
- 188.8.131.52 → 184.108.40.206 no changes
- 1.8.4 08/23/13
- 220.127.116.11 07/22/13
- 18.104.22.168 → 22.214.171.124 no changes
- 126.96.36.199 06/10/13
- 1.8.3 05/24/13
- 188.8.131.52 → 184.108.40.206 no changes
- 220.127.116.11 04/07/13
- 18.104.22.168 → 22.214.171.124 no changes
- 1.8.1 12/31/12
- 126.96.36.199 12/27/12
- 188.8.131.52 → 184.108.40.206 no changes
- 220.127.116.11 09/30/12
- 18.104.22.168 → 22.214.171.124 no changes
- 126.96.36.199 07/11/12
- 188.8.131.52 → 184.108.40.206 no changes
- 220.127.116.11 05/25/12
- 18.104.22.168 → 22.214.171.124 no changes
- 1.7.10 04/06/12
- 126.96.36.199 → 188.8.131.52 no changes
- 184.108.40.206 03/12/12
- 220.127.116.11 → 18.104.22.168 no changes
- 1.7.9 01/27/12
- 22.214.171.124 04/26/12
- 126.96.36.199 → 188.8.131.52 no changes
- 1.7.8 12/02/11
- 184.108.40.206 04/26/12
- 220.127.116.11 → 18.104.22.168 no changes
- 22.214.171.124 10/24/11
- 1.7.7 09/30/11
- 126.96.36.199 → 188.8.131.52 no changes
- 184.108.40.206 08/24/11
- 1.7.6 06/26/11
- 220.127.116.11 no changes
- 18.104.22.168 05/26/11
- 22.214.171.124 05/20/11
- 126.96.36.199 05/04/11
- 1.7.5 04/24/11
- 188.8.131.52 → 184.108.40.206 no changes
- 1.7.4 01/31/11
git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission
'git format-patch' [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout] [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]] [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach] [-s | --signoff] [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature] [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered] [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files] [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>] [--ignore-if-in-upstream] [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix] [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>] [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>] [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]] [<common diff options>] [ <since> | <revision range> ]
Prepare each commit with its patch in one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format. The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or for use with git am.
There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading to the tip of the current branch that are not in the history that leads to the <since> to be output.
Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions) means the commits in the specified range.
The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
history up until <commit>, use the \--root option:
--root <commit>. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
can do this with
git format-patch -1 <commit>.
By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
the filename. With the
--numbered-files option, the output file names
will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
The names of the output files are printed to standard
output, unless the
--stdout option is specified.
-o is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
they are created in the current working directory.
By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by the concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank line (see the DISCUSSION section of linkgit:git-commit).
When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will instead be
"[PATCH n/m] ". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use
To omit patch numbers from the subject, use
git-format-patch will generate
References headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
as replies to the first mail; this also generates a
Message-Id header to
Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.
- -o <dir>
- --output-directory <dir>
Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the current working directory.
Name output in [PATCH n/m] format, even with a single patch.
Name output in [PATCH] format.
- --start-number <n>
Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.
Output file names will be a simple number sequence without the default first line of the commit appended.
Do not strip/add [PATCH] from the first line of the commit log message.
Signed-off-by:line to the commit message, using the committer identity of yourself.
Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format, instead of creating a file for each one.
Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of which is the commit message and the patch itself in the second part, with
Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the configuration setting.
Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of which is the commit message and the patch itself in the second part, with
Controls addition of
Referencesheaders to make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the first. Also controls generation of the
Message-Idheader to reference.
The optional <style> argument can be either
deep. shallow threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
--in-reply-to, and the first patch mail, in this order. deep threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
The default is
--no-thread, unless the format.thread configuration is set. If
--threadis specified without a style, it defaults to the style specified by format.thread if any, or else
Beware that the default for git send-email is to thread emails itself. If you want
git format-patchto take care of threading, you will want to ensure that threading is disabled for
Make the first mail (or all the mails with
--no-thread) appear as a reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to provide a new patch series.
Do not include a patch that matches a commit in <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches reachable from <since> but not from <until> and compare them with the patches being generated, and any patch that matches is ignored.
Instead of the standard [PATCH] prefix in the subject line, instead use [<Subject-Prefix>]. This allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be combined with the
- -v <n>
Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The output filenames have
v<n>pretended to them, and the subject prefix ("PATCH" by default, but configurable via the
--subject-prefixoption) has ` v<n>` appended to it. E.g.
v4-0001-add-makefile.patchfile that has "Subject: [PATCH v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.
To:header to the email headers. This is in addition to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times. The negated form
To:headers added so far (from config or command line).
Cc:header to the email headers. This is in addition to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times. The negated form
Cc:headers added so far (from config or command line).
From:header of each commit email. If the author ident of the commit is not textually identical to the provided
ident, place a
From:header in the body of the message with the original author. If no
identis given, use the committer ident.
Note that this option is only useful if you are actually sending the emails and want to identify yourself as the sender, but retain the original author (and
git amwill correctly pick up the in-body header). Note also that
git send-emailalready handles this transformation for you, and this option should not be used if you are feeding the result to
Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times. For example,
--add-header="Organization: git-foo". The negated form
--no-add-headerdiscards all (
Cc:, and custom) headers added so far from config or command line.
In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
Append the notes (see linkgit:git-notes) for the commit after the three-dash line.
The expected use case of this is to write supporting explanation for the commit that does not belong to the commit log message proper, and include it with the patch submission. While one can simply write these explanations after
format-patchhas run but before sending, keeping them as Git notes allows them to be maintained between versions of the patch series (but see the discussion of the
notes.rewriteconfiguration options in linkgit:git-notes to use this workflow).
Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git version number.
Instead of using
.patchas the suffix for generated filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
--suffix=.txt. Leaving this empty will remove the
Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example, you can use
Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.
Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead display a notice that those files changed. Patches generated using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are still useful for code review.
Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a <since>). Note that root commits included in the specified range are always formatted as creation patches, independently of this flag.
You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message, defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
[format] headers = "Organization: git-foo\n" subjectprefix = CHANGE suffix = .txt numbered = auto to = <email> cc = <email> attach [ = mime-boundary-string ] signoff = true coverletter = auto
The patch produced by git format-patch is in UNIX mailbox format, with a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the file is output from format-patch rather than a real mailbox, like so:
From 8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001 From: Tony Luck <email@example.com> Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700 Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?= =?UTF-8?q?Uwe=20Kleine-K=C3=B6nig=20diet?= MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script (See commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae comment) Do the same for ia64 so we can have sleek & trim looking ...
Typically it will be placed in a MUA’s drafts folder, edited to add timely commentary that should not go in the changelog after the three dashes, and then sent as a message whose body, in our example, starts with "arch/arm config files were…". On the receiving end, readers can save interesting patches in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with linkgit:git-am.
When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch generated by
git format-patch can be tweaked to take advantage of the git am
--scissors feature. After your response to the discussion comes a
line that consists solely of "
-- >8 --" (scissors and perforation),
followed by the patch with unnecessary header fields removed:
... > So we should do such-and-such. Makes sense to me. How about this patch? -- >8 -- Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the Uwe Kleine-K��nig diet arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script ...
When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending your own
patch, so in addition to the "
From $SHA1 $magic_timestamp" marker you
Date: lines from the patch file. The patch
title is likely to be different from the subject of the discussion the
patch is in response to, so it is likely that you would want to keep
the Subject: line, like the example above.
Checking for patch corruption
Many mailers if not set up properly will corrupt whitespace. Here are two common types of corruption:
Empty context lines that do not have any whitespace.
Non-empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the beginning.
One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:
Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except with To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the list and maintainer address.
Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it a.patch, say.
$ git fetch <project> master:test-apply $ git checkout test-apply $ git reset --hard $ git am a.patch
If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is bad but does not have much to do with your MUA. You might want to rebase the patch with linkgit:git-rebase before regenerating it in this case.
The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that the patch does not apply. Look in the .git/rebase-apply/ subdirectory and see what patch file contains and check for the common corruption patterns mentioned above.
While at it, check the info and final-commit files as well. If what is in final-commit is not exactly what you would want to see in the commit log message, it is very likely that the receiver would end up hand editing the log message when applying your patch. Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n" in the patch e-mail should come after the three-dash line that signals the end of the commit message.
Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using various mailers.
GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in the web interface, so it will mangle any emails that you send. You can however use "git send-email" and send your patches through the GMail SMTP server, or use any IMAP email client to connect to the google IMAP server and forward the emails through that.
For hints on using git send-email to send your patches through the GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of linkgit:git-send-email.
For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the EXAMPLE section of linkgit:git-imap-send.
By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag them as being format=flowed, both of which will make the resulting email unusable by Git.
There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps, configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use an external editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling the patches.
Approach #1 (add-on)
Install the Toggle Word Wrap add-on that is available from https://addons.mozilla.org/thunderbird/addon/toggle-word-wrap/ It adds a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap" in the composer’s "Options" menu that you can tick off. Now you can compose the message as you otherwise do (cut + paste, git format-patch | git imap-send, etc), but you have to insert line breaks manually in any text that you type.
Approach #2 (configuration)
Configure your mail server composition as plain text: Edit…Account Settings…Composition & Addressing, uncheck "Compose Messages in HTML".
Configure your general composition window to not wrap.
In Thunderbird 2: Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
In Thunderbird 3: Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for "mail.wrap_long_lines". Toggle it to make sure it is set to
false. Also, search for "mailnews.wraplength" and set the value to 0.
Disable the use of format=flowed: Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for "mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed". Toggle it to make sure it is set to
After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you otherwise would (cut + paste, git format-patch | git imap-send, etc), and the patches will not be mangled.
Approach #3 (external editor)
Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
Before opening a compose window, use Edit→Account Settings to uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the "Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to send the patch.
In the main Thunderbird window, before you open the compose window for the patch, use Tools→about:config to set the following to the indicated values:
mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false mailnews.wraplength => 0
Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit the editor normally.
Side note: it may be possible to do step 2 with about:config and the following settings but no one’s tried yet.
mail.html_compose => false mail.identity.default.compose_html => false mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
There is a script in contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline which can help you include patches with Thunderbird in an easy way. To use it, do the steps above and then use the script as the external editor.
This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
Prepare the patch as a text file.
Click on New Mail.
Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that "Word wrap" is not set.
Use Message → Insert file… and insert the patch.
Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of the current branch using git am to cherry-pick them:
$ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the origin branch:
$ git format-patch origin
For each commit a separate file is created in the current directory.
Extract all commits that lead to origin since the inception of the project:
$ git format-patch --root origin
The same as the previous one:
$ git format-patch -M -B origin
Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review. Note that non-Git "patch" programs won’t understand renaming patches, so use it only when you know the recipient uses Git to apply your patch.
Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them as e-mailable patches:
$ git format-patch -3
Part of the linkgit:git suite