Git --local-branching-on-the-cheap
Topics ▾ Version 2.0.3 ▾ git-pull last updated in 2.0.1

NAME

git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch

SYNOPSIS

'git pull' [options] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]

DESCRIPTION

Incorporates changes from a remote repository into the current branch. In its default mode, git pull is shorthand for git fetch followed by git merge FETCH_HEAD.

More precisely, git pull runs git fetch with the given parameters and calls git merge to merge the retrieved branch heads into the current branch. With --rebase, it runs git rebase instead of git merge.

<repository> should be the name of a remote repository as passed to linkgit:git-fetch[1]. <refspec> can name an arbitrary remote ref (for example, the name of a tag) or even a collection of refs with corresponding remote-tracking branches (e.g., refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*), but usually it is the name of a branch in the remote repository.

Default values for <repository> and <branch> are read from the "remote" and "merge" configuration for the current branch as set by linkgit:git-branch[1] --track.

Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "master":

	  A---B---C master on origin
	 /
    D---E---F---G master
	^
	origin/master in your repository

Then "git pull" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote master branch since it diverged from the local master (i.e., E) until its current commit (C) on top of master and record the result in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits and a log message from the user describing the changes.

	  A---B---C origin/master
	 /         \
    D---E---F---G---H master

See linkgit:git-merge[1] for details, including how conflicts are presented and handled.

In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use git reset --merge. Warning: In older versions of Git, running git pull with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.

If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted changes, the merge will be automatically cancelled and the work tree untouched. It is generally best to get any local changes in working order before pulling or stash them away with linkgit:git-stash[1].

OPTIONS

Options meant for git pull itself and the underlying git merge must be given before the options meant for git fetch.

-q
--quiet

This is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch reporting of during transfer, and underlying git-merge to squelch output during merging.

-v
--verbose

Pass --verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.

--[no-]recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]

This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules should be fetched too (see linkgit:git-config[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5]). That might be necessary to get the data needed for merging submodule commits, a feature Git learned in 1.7.3. Notice that the result of a merge will not be checked out in the submodule, "git submodule update" has to be called afterwards to bring the work tree up to date with the merge result.

-r
--rebase[=false|true|preserve]

When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream branch after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information to avoid rebasing non-local changes.

When preserve, also rebase the current branch on top of the upstream branch, but pass --preserve-merges along to git rebase so that locally created merge commits will not be flattened.

When false, merge the current branch into the upstream branch.

See pull.rebase, branch.<name>.rebase and branch.autosetuprebase in linkgit:git-config[1] if you want to make git pull always use --rebase instead of merging.

Note
This is a potentially dangerous mode of operation. It rewrites history, which does not bode well when you published that history already. Do not use this option unless you have read linkgit:git-rebase[1] carefully.
--no-rebase

Override earlier --rebase.

DEFAULT BEHAVIOUR

Often people use git pull without giving any parameter. Traditionally, this has been equivalent to saying git pull origin. However, when configuration branch.<name>.remote is present while on branch <name>, that value is used instead of origin.

In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value of the configuration remote.<origin>.url is consulted and if there is not any such variable, the value on URL: ` line in `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> file is used.

In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and optionally store in the remote-tracking branches) when the command is run without any refspec parameters on the command line, values of the configuration variable remote.<origin>.fetch are consulted, and if there aren’t any, $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> file is consulted and its `Pull: ` lines are used. In addition to the refspec formats described in the OPTIONS section, you can have a globbing refspec that looks like this:

refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*

A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store what were fetched in remote-tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS must end with /*. The above specifies that all remote branches are tracked using remote-tracking branches in refs/remotes/origin/ hierarchy under the same name.

The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after fetching is a bit involved, in order not to break backward compatibility.

If explicit refspecs were given on the command line of git pull, they are all merged.

When no refspec was given on the command line, then git pull uses the refspec from the configuration or $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>. In such cases, the following rules apply:

  1. If branch.<name>.merge configuration for the current branch <name> exists, that is the name of the branch at the remote site that is merged.

  2. If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.

  3. Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.

EXAMPLES

  • Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository you cloned from, then merge one of them into your current branch:

    $ git pull, git pull origin

    Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository, but the choice is determined by the branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options; see linkgit:git-config[1] for details.

  • Merge into the current branch the remote branch next:

    $ git pull origin next

    This leaves a copy of next temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but does not update any remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking branches, the same can be done by invoking fetch and merge:

    $ git fetch origin
    $ git merge origin/next

If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and would want to start over, you can recover with git reset.

BUGS

Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git version.

SEE ALSO

linkgit:git-fetch[1], linkgit:git-merge[1], linkgit:git-config[1]

GIT

Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite