Topics ▾ Version ▾ git-show last updated in 2.16.3


git-show - Show various types of objects


git show [options] <object>…​


Shows one or more objects (blobs, trees, tags and commits).

For commits it shows the log message and textual diff. It also presents the merge commit in a special format as produced by git diff-tree --cc.

For tags, it shows the tag message and the referenced objects.

For trees, it shows the names (equivalent to git ls-tree with \--name-only).

For plain blobs, it shows the plain contents.

The command takes options applicable to the git diff-tree command to control how the changes the commit introduces are shown.

This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.



The names of objects to show. For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions[7].


Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format, where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller, email, raw and format:<string>. See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each format. When omitted, the format defaults to medium.

Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository configuration (see git-config[1]).


Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name, show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if it is displayed).

This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for people using 80-column terminals.


Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates --abbrev-commit and those options which imply it such as "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.


This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used together.


The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8.


Show the notes (see git-notes[1]) that annotate the commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the default for git log, git show and git whatchanged commands when there is no --pretty, --format nor --oneline option given on the command line.

By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding environment overrides). See git-config[1] for more details.

With an optional <ref> argument, show this notes ref instead of the default notes ref(s). The ref is taken to be in refs/notes/ if it is not qualified.

Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both notes from "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).


Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown. Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so e.g. "--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes from "refs/notes/bar".


These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes options instead.


Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature to gpg --verify and show the output.


If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested in changes related to a certain directory or file.

There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-config[1]). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

  • oneline

    <sha1> <title line>

    This is designed to be as compact as possible.

  • short

    commit <sha1>
    Author: <author>
    <title line>
  • medium

    commit <sha1>
    Author: <author>
    Date:   <author date>
    <title line>
    <full commit message>
  • full

    commit <sha1>
    Author: <author>
    Commit: <committer>
    <title line>
    <full commit message>
  • fuller

    commit <sha1>
    Author:     <author>
    AuthorDate: <author date>
    Commit:     <committer>
    CommitDate: <committer date>
    <title line>
    <full commit message>
  • email

    From <sha1> <date>
    From: <author>
    Date: <author date>
    Subject: [PATCH] <title line>
    <full commit message>
  • raw

    The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts nor history simplification into account.

  • format:<string>

    The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format, with the notable exception that you get a newline with %n instead of \n.

    E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:

    The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
    The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<
    The placeholders are:
    - '%H': commit hash
    - '%h': abbreviated commit hash
    - '%T': tree hash
    - '%t': abbreviated tree hash
    - '%P': parent hashes
    - '%p': abbreviated parent hashes
    - '%an': author name
    - '%aN': author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog[1]
      or git-blame[1])
    - '%ae': author email
    - '%aE': author email (respecting .mailmap, see
      git-shortlog[1] or git-blame[1])
    - '%ad': author date (format respects --date= option)
    - '%aD': author date, RFC2822 style
    - '%ar': author date, relative
    - '%at': author date, UNIX timestamp
    - '%ai': author date, ISO 8601 format
    - '%cn': committer name
    - '%cN': committer name (respecting .mailmap, see
      git-shortlog[1] or git-blame[1])
    - '%ce': committer email
    - '%cE': committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
      git-shortlog[1] or git-blame[1])
    - '%cd': committer date
    - '%cD': committer date, RFC2822 style
    - '%cr': committer date, relative
    - '%ct': committer date, UNIX timestamp
    - '%ci': committer date, ISO 8601 format
    - '%d': ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log[1]
    - '%e': encoding
    - '%s': subject
    - '%f': sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename
    - '%b': body
    - '%B': raw body (unwrapped subject and body)
    - '%N': commit notes
    - '%GG': raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit
    - '%G?': show "G" for a Good signature, "B" for a Bad signature, "U" for a good,
      untrusted signature and "N" for no signature
    - '%GS': show the name of the signer for a signed commit
    - '%GK': show the key used to sign a signed commit
    - '%gD': reflog selector, e.g., `refs/stash@{1}`
    - '%gd': shortened reflog selector, e.g., `stash@{1}`
    - '%gn': reflog identity name
    - '%gN': reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
      git-shortlog[1] or git-blame[1])
    - '%ge': reflog identity email
    - '%gE': reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
      git-shortlog[1] or git-blame[1])
    - '%gs': reflog subject
    - '%Cred': switch color to red
    - '%Cgreen': switch color to green
    - '%Cblue': switch color to blue
    - '%Creset': reset color
    - '%C(...)': color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option;
      adding `auto,` at the beginning will emit color only when colors are
      enabled for log output (by `color.diff`, `color.ui`, or `--color`, and
      respecting the `auto` settings of the former if we are going to a
      terminal). `auto` alone (i.e. `%C(auto)`) will turn on auto coloring
      on the next placeholders until the color is switched again.
    - '%m': left, right or boundary mark
    - '%n': newline
    - '%%': a raw '%'
    - '%x00': print a byte from a hex code
    - '%w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]])': switch line wrapping, like the -w option of
    - '%<(<N>[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])': make the next placeholder take at
      least N columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary.
      Optionally truncate at the beginning (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc)
      or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N columns.
      Note that truncating only works correctly with N >= 2.
    - '%<|(<N>)': make the next placeholder take at least until Nth
      columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary
    - '%>(<N>)', '%>|(<N>)': similar to '%<(<N>)', '%<|(<N>)'
      respectively, but padding spaces on the left
    - '%>>(<N>)', '%>>|(<N>)': similar to '%>(<N>)', '%>|(<N>)'
      respectively, except that if the next placeholder takes more spaces
      than given and there are spaces on its left, use those spaces
    - '%><(<N>)', '%><|(<N>)': similar to '% <(<N>)', '%<|(<N>)'
      respectively, but padding both sides (i.e. the text is centered)
    NOTE: Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
    revision traversal engine. For example, the `%g*` reflog options will
    insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
    `git log -g`). The `%d` placeholder will use the "short" decoration
    format if `--decorate` was not already provided on the command line.
    If you add a `+` (plus sign) after '%' of a placeholder, a line-feed
    is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
    placeholder expands to a non-empty string.
    If you add a `-` (minus sign) after '%' of a placeholder, line-feeds that
    immediately precede the expansion are deleted if and only if the
    placeholder expands to an empty string.
    If you add a ` ` (space) after '%' of a placeholder, a space
    is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
    placeholder expands to a non-empty string.
    * 'tformat:'
    The 'tformat:' format works exactly like 'format:', except that it
    provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In
    other words, each commit has the message terminator character (usually a
    newline) appended, rather than a separator placed between entries.
    This means that the final entry of a single-line format will be properly
    terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does.
    For example:
    $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
      | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
    7134973 -- NO NEWLINE
    $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
      | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
    In addition, any unrecognized string that has a `%` in it is interpreted
    as if it has `tformat:` in front of it.  For example, these two are
    $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
    $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef
    :git-log: 1
    // Please don't remove this comment as asciidoc behaves badly when
    // the first non-empty line is ifdef/ifndef. The symptom is that
    // without this comment the <git-diff-core> attribute conditionally
    // defined below ends up being defined unconditionally.
    // Last checked with asciidoc 7.0.2.
    :git-diff-core: 1
    	Generate patch (see section on generating patches).
    	{git-diff? This is the default.}
    	Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like `git show` that
    	show the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of `--patch`.
    	Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of
    	the usual three.
    	Implies `-p`.
    	Generate the raw format.
    	{git-diff-core? This is the default.}
    	Synonym for `-p --raw`.
    	Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
    	diff is produced.
    	Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.
    	Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.
    	Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
    `default`, `myers`;;
    	The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.
    	Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
    	Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.
    	This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
    	low-occurrence common elements".
    For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a
    non-default value and want to use the default one, then you
    have to use `--diff-algorithm=default` option.
    	Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary
    	will be used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph
    	part. Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns
    	if not connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by
    	`<width>`. The width of the filename part can be limited by
    	giving another width `<name-width>` after a comma. The width
    	of the graph part can be limited by using
    	`--stat-graph-width=<width>` (affects all commands generating
    	a stat graph) or by setting `diff.statGraphWidth=<width>`
    	(does not affect `git format-patch`).
    	By giving a third parameter `<count>`, you can limit the
    	output to the first `<count>` lines, followed by `...` if
    	there are more.
    These parameters can also be set individually with `--stat-width=<width>`,
    `--stat-name-width=<name-width>` and `--stat-count=<count>`.
    	Similar to `--stat`, but shows number of added and
    	deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
    	abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly.  For
    	binary files, outputs two `-` instead of saying
    	`0 0`.
    	Output only the last line of the `--stat` format containing total
    	number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
    	Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
    	sub-directory. The behavior of `--dirstat` can be customized by
    	passing it a comma separated list of parameters.
    	The defaults are controlled by the `diff.dirstat` configuration
    	variable (see git-config[1]).
    	The following parameters are available:
    	Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have been
    	removed from the source, or added to the destination. This ignores
    	the amount of pure code movements within a file.  In other words,
    	rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much as other changes.
    	This is the default behavior when no parameter is given.
    	Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based diff
    	analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For binary
    	files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files have no
    	natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive `--dirstat`
    	behavior than the `changes` behavior, but it does count rearranged
    	lines within a file as much as other changes. The resulting output
    	is consistent with what you get from the other `--*stat` options.
    	Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files changed.
    	Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat analysis. This is
    	the computationally cheapest `--dirstat` behavior, since it does
    	not have to look at the file contents at all.
    	Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as well.
    	Note that when using `cumulative`, the sum of the percentages
    	reported may exceed 100%. The default (non-cumulative) behavior can
    	be specified with the `noncumulative` parameter.
    	An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by default).
    	Directories contributing less than this percentage of the changes
    	are not shown in the output.
    Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring
    directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed files,
    and accumulating child directory counts in the parent directories:
    	Output a condensed summary of extended header information
    	such as creations, renames and mode changes.
    	Synonym for `-p --stat`.
    	When `--raw`, `--numstat`, `--name-only` or `--name-status` has been
    	given, do not munge pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
    Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double quotes,
    and backslash characters replaced with `\t`, `\n`, `\"`, and `\\`,
    respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
    any of those replacements occurred.
    	Show only names of changed files.
    	Show only names and status of changed files. See the description
    	of the `--diff-filter` option on what the status letters mean.
    	Specify how differences in submodules are shown.  When `--submodule`
    	or `--submodule=log` is given, the 'log' format is used.  This format lists
    	the commits in the range like git-submodule[1] `summary` does.
    	Omitting the `--submodule` option or specifying `--submodule=short`,
    	uses the 'short' format. This format just shows the names of the commits
    	at the beginning and end of the range.  Can be tweaked via the
    	`diff.submodule` configuration variable.
    	Show colored diff.
    	`--color` (i.e. without '=<when>') is the same as `--color=always`.
    	'<when>' can be one of `always`, `never`, or `auto`.
    	Turn off colored diff.
    	It is the same as `--color=never`.
    	Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words.
    	By default, words are delimited by whitespace; see
    	`--word-diff-regex` below.  The <mode> defaults to 'plain', and
    	must be one of:
    	Highlight changed words using only colors.  Implies `--color`.
    	Show words as `[-removed-]` and `{+added+}`.  Makes no
    	attempts to escape the delimiters if they appear in the input,
    	so the output may be ambiguous.
    	Use a special line-based format intended for script
    	consumption.  Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the
    	usual unified diff format, starting with a `+`/`-`/` `
    	character at the beginning of the line and extending to the
    	end of the line.  Newlines in the input are represented by a
    	tilde `~` on a line of its own.
    	Disable word diff again.
    Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to
    highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.
    	Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of considering
    	runs of non-whitespace to be a word.  Also implies
    	`--word-diff` unless it was already enabled.
    Every non-overlapping match of the
    <regex> is considered a word.  Anything between these matches is
    considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
    differences.  You may want to append `|[^[:space:]]` to your regular
    expression to make sure that it matches all non-whitespace characters.
    A match that contains a newline is silently truncated(!) at the
    The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option, see
    gitattributes[1] or git-config[1].  Giving it explicitly
    overrides any diff driver or configuration setting.  Diff drivers
    override configuration settings.
    	Equivalent to `--word-diff=color` plus (if a regex was
    	specified) `--word-diff-regex=<regex>`.
    	Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
    	file gives the default to do so.
    	Warn if changes introduce whitespace errors.  What are
    	considered whitespace errors is controlled by `core.whitespace`
    	configuration.  By default, trailing whitespaces (including
    	lines that solely consist of whitespaces) and a space character
    	that is immediately followed by a tab character inside the
    	initial indent of the line are considered whitespace errors.
    	Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible
    	with --exit-code.
    	Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full
    	pre- and post-image blob object names on the "index"
    	line when generating patch format output.
    	In addition to `--full-index`, output a binary diff that
    	can be applied with `git-apply`.
    	Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
    	name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
    	lines, show only a partial prefix.  This is
    	independent of the `--full-index` option above, which controls
    	the diff-patch output format.  Non default number of
    	digits can be specified with `--abbrev=<n>`.
    	Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and
    	create. This serves two purposes:
    It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a file
    not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with a very
    few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but as a
    single deletion of everything old followed by a single insertion of
    everything new, and the number `m` controls this aspect of the -B
    option (defaults to 60%). `-B/70%` specifies that less than 30% of the
    original should remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
    rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a series of
    deletion and insertion mixed together with context lines).
    When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as the
    source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that disappeared
    as the source of a rename), and the number `n` controls this aspect of
    the -B option (defaults to 50%). `-B20%` specifies that a change with
    addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of the file's size are
    eligible for being picked up as a possible source of a rename to
    another file.
    	Detect renames.
    	If `n` is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
    	index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
    	file's size). For example, `-M90%` means Git should consider a
    	delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file
    	hasn't changed.  Without a `%` sign, the number is to be read as
    	a fraction, with a decimal point before it.  I.e., `-M5` becomes
    	0.5, and is thus the same as `-M50%`.  Similarly, `-M05` is
    	the same as `-M5%`.  To limit detection to exact renames, use
    	`-M100%`.  The default similarity index is 50%.
    	Detect copies as well as renames.  See also `--find-copies-harder`.
    	If `n` is specified, it has the same meaning as for `-M<n>`.
    	For performance reasons, by default, `-C` option finds copies only
    	if the original file of the copy was modified in the same
    	changeset.  This flag makes the command
    	inspect unmodified files as candidates for the source of
    	copy.  This is a very expensive operation for large
    	projects, so use it with caution.  Giving more than one
    	`-C` option has the same effect.
    	Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
    	the diff between the preimage and `/dev/null`. The resulting patch
    	is not meant to be applied with `patch` nor `git apply`; this is
    	solely for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
    	text after the change. In addition, the output obviously lack
    	enough information to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually,
    	hence the name of the option.
    When used together with `-B`, omit also the preimage in the deletion part
    of a delete/create pair.
    	The `-M` and `-C` options require O(n^2) processing time where n
    	is the number of potential rename/copy targets.  This
    	option prevents rename/copy detection from running if
    	the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the specified
    	Select only files that are Added (`A`), Copied (`C`),
    	Deleted (`D`), Modified (`M`), Renamed (`R`), have their
    	type (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, ...) changed (`T`),
    	are Unmerged (`U`), are
    	Unknown (`X`), or have had their pairing Broken (`B`).
    	Any combination of the filter characters (including none) can be used.
    	When `*` (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all
    	paths are selected if there is any file that matches
    	other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file
    	that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
    	Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
    	the specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file.
    	Intended for the scripter's use.
    It is useful when you're looking for an exact block of code (like a
    struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
    came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the interesting
    block in the preimage back into `-S`, and keep going until you get the
    very first version of the block.
    	Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed
    	lines that match <regex>.
    To illustrate the difference between `-S<regex> --pickaxe-regex` and
    `-G<regex>`, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
    +    return !regexec(regexp, two->ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
    -    hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
    While `git log -G"regexec\(regexp"` will show this commit, `git log
    -S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex` will not (because the number of
    occurrences of that string did not change).
    See the 'pickaxe' entry in gitdiffcore[7] for more
    	When `-S` or `-G` finds a change, show all the changes in that
    	changeset, not just the files that contain the change
    	in <string>.
    	Treat the <string> given to `-S` as an extended POSIX regular
    	expression to match.
    	Output the patch in the order specified in the
    	<orderfile>, which has one shell glob pattern per line.
    	Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
    	on-disk file to tree contents.
    	When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be
    	told to exclude changes outside the directory and show
    	pathnames relative to it with this option.  When you are
    	not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
    	can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
    	to by giving a <path> as an argument.
    	Treat all files as text.
    	Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
    	Ignore changes in amount of whitespace.  This ignores whitespace
    	at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
    	more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
    	Ignore whitespace when comparing lines.  This ignores
    	differences even if one line has whitespace where the other
    	line has none.
    	Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.
    	Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number
    	of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
    	Show whole surrounding functions of changes.
    	Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1).
    	That is, it exits with 1 if there were differences and
    	0 means no differences.
    	Disable all output of the program. Implies `--exit-code`.
    	Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
    	external diff driver with gitattributes[5], you need
    	to use this option with git-log[1] and friends.
    	Disallow external diff drivers.
    	Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run
    	when comparing binary files. See gitattributes[5] for
    	details. Because textconv filters are typically a one-way
    	conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for human
    	consumption, but cannot be applied. For this reason, textconv
    	filters are enabled by default only for git-diff[1] and
    	git-log[1], but not for git-format-patch[1] or
    	diff plumbing commands.
    	Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be
    	either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
    	Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either contains
    	untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the commit recorded
    	in the superproject and can be used to override any settings of the
    	'ignore' option in git-config[1] or gitmodules[5]. When
    	"untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when they only
    	contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for modified
    	content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work tree of submodules,
    	only changes to the commits stored in the superproject are shown (this was
    	the behavior until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to submodules.
    	Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".
    	Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".
    	Do not show any source or destination prefix.
    For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
    Generating patches with -p
    When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
    with a '-p' option, "git diff" without the '--raw' option, or
    "git log" with the "-p" option, they
    do not produce the output described above; instead they produce a
    patch file.  You can customize the creation of such patches via the
    GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment variables.
    What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
    diff format:
    1.   It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like this:
           diff --git a/file1 b/file2
    The `a/` and `b/` filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
    involved.  Especially, even for a creation or a deletion,
    `/dev/null` is _not_ used in place of the `a/` or `b/` filenames.
    When rename/copy is involved, `file1` and `file2` show the
    name of the source file of the rename/copy and the name of
    the file that rename/copy produces, respectively.
    2.   It is followed by one or more extended header lines:
           old mode <mode>
           new mode <mode>
           deleted file mode <mode>
           new file mode <mode>
           copy from <path>
           copy to <path>
           rename from <path>
           rename to <path>
           similarity index <number>
           dissimilarity index <number>
           index <hash>..<hash> <mode>
    File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the file type
    and file permission bits.
    Path names in extended headers do not include the `a/` and `b/` prefixes.
    The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and
    the dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines.  It
    is a rounded down integer, followed by a percent sign.  The
    similarity index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal
    files, while 100% dissimilarity means that no line from the old
    file made it into the new one.
    The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and after the change.
    The <mode> is included if the file mode does not change; otherwise,
    separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.
    3.  TAB, LF, double quote and backslash characters in pathnames
        are represented as `\t`, `\n`, `\"` and `\\`, respectively.
        If there is need for such substitution then the whole
        pathname is put in double quotes.
    4.  All the `file1` files in the output refer to files before the
        commit, and all the `file2` files refer to files after the commit.
        It is incorrect to apply each change to each file sequentially.  For
        example, this patch will swap a and b:
          diff --git a/a b/b
          rename from a
          rename to b
          diff --git a/b b/a
          rename from b
          rename to a
    combined diff format
    Any diff-generating command can take the `-c` or `--cc` option to
    produce a 'combined diff' when showing a merge. This is the default
    format when showing merges with git-diff[1] or
    git-show[1]. Note also that you can give the `-m' option to any
    of these commands to force generation of diffs with individual parents
    of a merge.
    A 'combined diff' format looks like this:
    diff --combined describe.c
    index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
    --- a/describe.c
    +++ b/describe.c
    @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
    	return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
    - static void describe(char *arg)
     -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
    ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
     +	unsigned char sha1[20];
     +	struct commit *cmit;
    	struct commit_list *list;
    	static int initialized = 0;
    	struct commit_name *n;
     +	if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
     +		usage(describe_usage);
     +	cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
     +	if (!cmit)
     +		usage(describe_usage);
    	if (!initialized) {
    		initialized = 1;
    1.   It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
         this (when '-c' option is used):
           diff --combined file
    or like this (when '--cc' option is used):
           diff --cc file
    2.   It is followed by one or more extended header lines
         (this example shows a merge with two parents):
           index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
           mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
           new file mode <mode>
           deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>
    The `mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>` line appears only if at least one of
    the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended headers with
    information about detected contents movement (renames and
    copying detection) are designed to work with diff of two
    <tree-ish> and are not used by combined diff format.
    3.   It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header
           --- a/file
           +++ b/file
    Similar to two-line header for traditional 'unified' diff
    format, `/dev/null` is used to signal created or deleted
    4.   Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
         accidentally feeding it to `patch -p1`. Combined diff format
         was created for review of merge commit changes, and was not
         meant for apply. The change is similar to the change in the
         extended 'index' header:
           @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@
    There are (number of parents + 1) `@` characters in the chunk
    header for combined diff format.
    Unlike the traditional 'unified' diff format, which shows two
    files A and B with a single column that has `-` (minus --
    appears in A but removed in B), `+` (plus -- missing in A but
    added to B), or `" "` (space -- unchanged) prefix, this format
    compares two or more files file1, file2,... with one file X, and
    shows how X differs from each of fileN.  One column for each of
    fileN is prepended to the output line to note how X's line is
    different from it.
    A `-` character in the column N means that the line appears in
    fileN but it does not appear in the result.  A `+` character
    in the column N means that the line appears in the result,
    and fileN does not have that line (in other words, the line was
    added, from the point of view of that parent).
    In the above example output, the function signature was changed
    from both files (hence two `-` removals from both file1 and
    file2, plus `++` to mean one line that was added does not appear
    in either file1 nor file2).  Also eight other lines are the same
    from file1 but do not appear in file2 (hence prefixed with `+`).
    When shown by `git diff-tree -c`, it compares the parents of a
    merge commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the
    parents).  When shown by `git diff-files -c`, it compares the
    two unresolved merge parents with the working tree file
    (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our version", file2 is stage 3 aka
    "their version").
    `git show v1.0.0`::
    	Shows the tag `v1.0.0`, along with the object the tags
    	points at.
    `git show v1.0.0^{tree}`::
    	Shows the tree pointed to by the tag `v1.0.0`.
    `git show -s --format=%s v1.0.0^{commit}`::
    	Shows the subject of the commit pointed to by the
    	tag `v1.0.0`.
    `git show next~10:Documentation/README`::
    	Shows the contents of the file `Documentation/README` as
    	they were current in the 10th last commit of the branch
    `git show master:Makefile master:t/Makefile`::
    	Concatenates the contents of said Makefiles in the head
    	of the branch `master`.
    At the core level, Git is character encoding agnostic.
     - The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects
       are treated as uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes.
       What readdir(2) returns are what are recorded and compared
       with the data Git keeps track of, which in turn are expected
       to be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts.  There is no such
       thing as pathname encoding translation.
     - The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences
       of bytes.  There is no encoding translation at the core
     - The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL
    Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded
    in UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to
    force UTF-8 on projects.  If all participants of a particular
    project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, Git
    does not forbid it.  However, there are a few things to keep in
    . 'git commit' and 'git commit-tree' issues
      a warning if the commit log message given to it does not look
      like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your
      project uses a legacy encoding.  The way to say this is to
      have i18n.commitencoding in `.git/config` file, like this:
    	commitencoding = ISO-8859-1
    Commit objects created with the above setting record the value
    of `i18n.commitencoding` in its `encoding` header.  This is to
    help other people who look at them later.  Lack of this header
    implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
    . 'git log', 'git show', 'git blame' and friends look at the
      `encoding` header of a commit object, and try to re-code the
      log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified.  You can
      specify the desired output encoding with
      `i18n.logoutputencoding` in `.git/config` file, like this:
    	logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1
    If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
    `i18n.commitencoding` is used instead.
    Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log
    message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit
    object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a
    reversible operation.
    Part of the git[1] suite