Setup and Config
Getting and Creating Projects
Branching and Merging
Sharing and Updating Projects
Inspection and Comparison
- Command-line interface conventions
- Everyday Git
- 2.24.0 11/04/19
- 2.23.0 08/16/19
- 2.22.0 → 2.22.1 no changes
- 2.21.0 02/24/19
- 2.16.5 → 2.20.1 no changes
- 2.16.4 05/22/18
- 2.13.5 → 2.16.1 no changes
- 2.13.4 08/01/17
- 2.13.3 no changes
- 2.13.2 06/24/17
- 2.12.3 → 2.12.5 no changes
- 2.12.2 03/24/17
- 2.11.2 → 2.12.1 no changes
- 2.11.1 02/02/17
- 2.10.3 → 2.11.0 no changes
- 2.10.2 10/28/16
- 2.9.4 → 2.9.5 no changes
- 2.9.3 08/12/16
- 2.9.1 07/11/16
- 2.9.0 06/13/16
- 2.7.3 → 2.8.6 no changes
- 2.7.2 02/22/16
- 2.6.6 → 2.7.0 no changes
- 2.6.5 01/04/16
- 2.4.5 → 2.6.1 no changes
- 2.4.4 06/16/15
- 2.4.1 → 2.4.2 no changes
- 2.4.0 04/30/15
git-commit [-a | --interactive] [-s] [-v] [-u] [(-c | -C) <commit> | -F <file> | -m <msg> | --amend] [--allow-empty] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author <author>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--] [[-i | -o ]<file>…]
Use git commit to store the current contents of the index in a new commit along with a log message describing the changes you have made.
The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
by using git-add to incrementally "add" changes to the index before using the commit command (Note: even modified files must be "added");
by using git-rm to remove files from the working tree and the index, again before using the commit command;
by listing files as arguments to the commit command, in which case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead record the current content of the listed files;
by using the -a switch with the commit command to automatically "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the actual commit;
by using the --interactive switch with the commit command to decide one by one which files should be part of the commit, before finalizing the operation. Currently, this is done by invoking
The git-status command can be used to obtain a summary of what is included by any of the above for the next commit by giving the same set of parameters you would give to this command.
If you make a commit and then found a mistake immediately after that, you can recover from it with git-reset.
Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been modified and deleted, but new files you have not told git about are not affected.
- -c or -C <commit>
Take existing commit object, and reuse the log message and the authorship information (including the timestamp) when creating the commit. With -C, the editor is not invoked; with -c the user can further edit the commit message.
- -F <file>
Take the commit message from the given file. Use - to read the message from the standard input.
Override the author name used in the commit. Use
A U Thor <email@example.com>format.
- -m <msg>|--message=<msg>
Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
- -t <file>|--template=<file>
Use the contents of the given file as the initial version of the commit message. The editor is invoked and you can make subsequent changes. If a message is specified using the
-Foptions, this option has no effect. This overrides the
Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks. See also hooks.
Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and is primarily for use by foreign scm interface scripts.
This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up. The <mode> can be one of verbatim, whitespace, strip, and default. The default mode will strip leading and trailing empty lines and #commentary from the commit message only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace removed. The verbatim mode does not change message at all, whitespace removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines and strip removes both whitespace and commentary.
The message taken from file with
-F, command line with
-m, and from file with
-Care usually used as the commit log message unmodified. This option lets you further edit the message taken from these sources.
Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the current tip — if it was a merge, it will have the parents of the current tip as parents — so the current top commit is discarded.
It is a rough equivalent for:
$ git reset --soft HEAD^ $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ... $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
but can be used to amend a merge commit.
Before making a commit out of staged contents so far, stage the contents of paths given on the command line as well. This is usually not what you want unless you are concluding a conflicted merge.
Show all untracked files, also those in uninteresting directories, in the "Untracked files:" section of commit message template. Without this option only its name and a trailing slash are displayed for each untracked directory.
Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would be committed at the bottom of the commit message template. Note that this diff output doesn’t have its lines prefixed with #.
Suppress commit summary message.
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
When files are given on the command line, the command commits the contents of the named files, without recording the changes already staged. The contents of these files are also staged for the next commit on top of what have been staged before.
When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
called the "index" with git-add. A file can be
reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
to that of the last commit with
git-reset HEAD -- <file>,
which effectively reverts
git-add and prevents the changes to
this file from participating in the next commit. After building
the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
git commit (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the
command. An example:
$ edit hello.c $ git rm goodbye.c $ git add hello.c $ git commit
Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
git commit to notice the changes to the files whose
contents are tracked in
your working tree and do corresponding
git add and
for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier
example if there is no other change in your working tree:
$ edit hello.c $ rm goodbye.c $ git commit -a
git commit -a first looks at your working tree,
notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c,
and performs necessary
git add and
git rm for you.
After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to
When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that
only records the changes made to the named paths:
$ edit hello.c hello.h $ git add hello.c hello.h $ edit Makefile $ git commit Makefile
This makes a commit that records the modification to
The changes staged for
hello.h are not included
in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost — they are still staged and merely held back. After the above
sequence, if you do:
$ git commit
this second commit would record the changes to
hello.h as expected.
After a merge (initiated by either git-merge or git-pull) stops because of conflicts, cleanly merged paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first check which paths are conflicting with git-status and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would stage the result as usual with git-add:
$ git status | grep unmerged unmerged: hello.c $ edit hello.c $ git add hello.c
After resolving conflicts and staging the result,
git ls-files -u
would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done,
git commit to finally record the merge:
$ git commit
As with the case to record your own changes, you can use
option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge
resolution, you cannot use
git commit with pathnames to
alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command
refuses to run when given pathnames (but see
Though not required, it’s a good idea to begin the commit message with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description. Tools that turn commits into email, for example, use the first line on the Subject: line and the rest of the commit in the body.
At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.
The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects are treated as uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes. What readdir(2) returns are what are recorded and compared with the data git keeps track of, which in turn are expected to be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts. There is no such thing as pathname encoding translation.
The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequence of bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.
The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequence of non-NUL bytes.
Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8, both the core and git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, git does not forbid it. However, there are a few things to keep in mind.
git-commitwhich uses it) issues a warning if the commit log message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in
.git/configfile, like this:
[i18n] commitencoding = ISO-8859-1
Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
encodingheader. This is to help other people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
git-showand friends looks at the
encodingheader of a commit object, and tries to re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired output encoding with
.git/configfile, like this:
[i18n] logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1
If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
i18n.commitencodingis used instead.
Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.
The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that order).
This command can run
post-commit hooks. See hooks for more
Part of the git suite